Landscape Construction

The scope of landscape construction and landscape architecture includes: urban design; site planning; town or urban planning; environmental restoration; parks and recreation planning; visual resource management; green infrastructure planning and provision; and private estate and residence landscape.

In planning a site, landscape architects first consider the purpose of the project and the funds available. They then analyze the natural elements of the site, such as the climate, soil, slope of the land, drainage, and vegetation. They also assess existing buildings, roads, walkways, and utilities to determine what improvements are necessary. At all stages, they evaluate the project’s impact on the local ecosystem.


Consent from the local Authorities is required in certain countries for certain scales of landscaping works.

In New Zealand for example, some outdoor and garden features will need building consent. Under the Building Act 2004, building work includes:

  • Building decks one metre or more in height above ground level.
  • Building retaining walls that:
  • Are above 1.5 metres in height above ground level.
  • Will retain driveways or structures regardless of height.
  • Plumbing or drainage work that is not routine maintenance.
  • Construction or installation of swimming and spa pools.
  • Installation of roof, wall and free-standing communications aerials.
  • A fence constructed of concrete, block-work, steel, etc which requires heavy foundations; or
  • A fence of any other type of construction over two metres in height.
  • Building garages or garden sheds over 10 sqm.